Showing posts with label construction. Show all posts
Showing posts with label construction. Show all posts

Multifunctional geogrids

  • grid embedded in nonwoven filter layers
  • One-step easy installation
  • Optimal interaction with the sub-grade
  • High modulus, low strain (Enkagrid TRC)
  • Geogrid and nonwoven geotextile together

Stabilization+ Filtration+ Separation

Steel water storage silo / tank

Another usage of geosynthetics materials are in steel water reservoirs.
These are very practical and easy to use water storage systems.

They come with all the parts inside and you construct it on site.

Their heights are upto 4.64 meters and diameters vary from 1.85 to 30.95 meters.

Inside the steel construction there is a nonwoven geotextile liner to protect the waterproof tank liner. The tank liner can be made of PVC or other type of polymers depending on the usage.

Basement drainage of a congress hall building construction

Geocomposite drainage sheets can also be used in higher depths. Photographs here shows some applications of drainage composites. They are ready to backfill. The backfill around the composites should be made very carefully because of the height. Direct flow of gravel and backfil materials may tear or damage the drainage materials.
This drainage composite was placed on the waterproofing layer.

For house basement drainage please check other drainage posts.

Geogrid in railways

Uniaxial geogrids were applied in this railroad project between Aliaga-Izmir cities.
Geogrids were installed as several layers and the specially chosen soil between the layers was compacted. Like the roads in railroad backfills uniaxial geogrids can be used.

Tunnel drainage with geocomposites

In TAG motorway project a geocomposite drainage product was used. The project was a cut and cover tunnel.

To protect the waterproofing and also for drainage Enkadrain drainage sheets were used. All the tunnel covered carefully. The backfill around done carefully.

composite geosynthetics are also used inside the bored tunnels.

Enkabreak - breaks the morter :)

While constructing the outer wall of the buildings there is always a risk of blocking the drainage holes with morter.
You may use Enkabreak to prevent that problem.
Enka-Break (thickness approximately 20 mm, height 300 mm) is placed vertically in the cavity, against the outer wall. The mat is fixed in position by bending the flat section on the top end horizontally and embedding it in the mortar or between the mortar and the bricks. Any mortar falling into the cavity will end up between Enka-Break and the inner wall.
As a result, Enka-Break prevents the blocking of the venting and drainage holes in the outer wall. It also prevents bridging between inner and outer wall.

A Soil consolidation project

In this project about 700.000 meters of wickdrains (prefabricated vertical drains-PVD) were specified.

Working with sand drains need more time and work.

The soil should be consolidated quickly, and the road is near the sea.

It was like draining the sea.

At the top of the soft soil a sand layer was placed to move the machines and also for drainage.

The contractor preferred a special soil consolidation composite - Colbonddrain.

At the top of the soil there were a 1 meter thick soil which was difficult to penetrate in some areas. The bottom was very soft.

A simple wickdrain installation equipment attached to an excavator worked well.

The wick drains installed upto 18 meters depth.

At the end the consolidation was done succesfully.

Horizontal usage of wickdrains (prefabricated vertical drains-PVD)

I think the first project that the wickdrains have been used was in Belgium, in the Brussels Metropolitan Transport system. The second may be the Eskisehir light rail tram system.

Actually the main application of PVD's are in soil consolidation. But in this tram project it was used to collect the leakage water to prevent not to pass the lower section to cause rusting. So, if it is a good drainage material and if it works also horizontally why not we use horizontally.

Colbondrain (a Dutch made PVD from Colbond geosynthetics bv.) was laid horizontally, and to collect more water they made some loops upwards.

Building - Sound Reduction

Enkasonic® - sound control matting


Enkasonic® is used as sound control matting beneath ceramic tile, marble, wood vinyl or carpet flooring in both wood frame and concrete slab constructions. Due to its reduced thickness (10 mm), Enkasonic® E is ideal for both new constructions and retrofit. In addition to acting as a sound reduction layer, Enkasonic® E also contributes to the thermal insulation of the floor.

• Easy to install
• Used to create “void” essential for sound insulation
• Resilient enough to absorb impact sound
• Ideal for new construction and rehab projects


For the installation of Enkasonic®, the following steps should be followed:
• Ensure proper sub-floor strength
• Install perimeter isolation strip to prevent impact sound
• transmission through floor- wall contact area
• Place Enkasonic® on top of sub-floor and tape joints
• Place the overlay on top of Enkasonic®
• Place the floor covering on top of the overlay

Parking deck- drainage

Dealing with the ever increasing number of cars requires both a creative and practical solution to growing parking problems. The construction of parking areas on the roofs of buildings proves to be an efficient option. This system should cover the primary objectives: prevent infiltration of rain water, protect the waterproof layer and provide a sufficient stability allowing vehicles to drive and park. Also aspects of aesthetics, maintenance and repair costs need to be considered. Securing a well designed drainage system is a major function that can be fulfilled by geocomposites. Due to the expected traffic loads, high compression resistance is one of the main factors to be taken into account in the choice of a suitable product.

Drainage mats, which have all proven themselves in the past and provide outstanding performance in many parking deck projects worldwide. As the number of applications has grown, so has the number of criteria for selecting drainage mats. From a combination of pressure resistance, water discharge capacity, slope, filter stability and other factors, can effect to choose the right product for each specific project. For more information on drainage mats like Enkadrain and their applications.
Typical roof construction
1. Concrete roof
2. Protection layer
3. Impermeable layer
4. drainage material (mat)
5. Sand/gravel 2-7 mm, 6-15 cm
6. Pavement layer, 6-12 cm
7. Interlock improvement by sand

Road edge drainage-findrain

Water in road construction weakens the substructure and can have disastrous effects on the structure as a whole. Dynamic loads from road traffic generate a pumping effect, drawing water from the subsoil up into the road structure. Varying water table levels undermine the stability of the base course material and can cause cracking right up to the road surface. This is a case for geosynthetic drain screens which intercept water and drain it off safely into collector pipes. The ideal is a system that is quick to install over both long and short distances. For this purpose, prefabricated findrains were developed. This drain screen can be used with a wide range of different drainpipes, draining off water quickly to the main collector, thereby securing the stability of the entire structure. Prefabricated Findrain can be dug into the sub-soil or be laid in narrow trenches.

Reinforcement of silo foundation

The project contains the foundation of 4 silos with a diameter of 27 m each, to be used for the storage of grain. The soil had insufficient bearing capacity to prevent differential settlements under the circular loaded area.
The steel wall of the silo was placed upon a concrete foundation. The bottom of the silo consists of a circular concrete plate which is not connected to the surrounding foundation of the wall.
When the silo is filled, this could bring about some movement of the plate caused by the consolidation of the subgrade. A local designer made a design with four layers of Enkagrid TRC-20 geogrid to improve the bearing capacity of the foundation underneath the silos.
TRC-Grid reinforces the granular fill and prevents mixing of the particles of the subgrade and the granular fill during the design life.
Furthermore TRC-Grid acts as a filter around the drainage pipe. Differential settlements can occur due to consolidation or loss of bearing capacity of the underlying subsoil between the silo wall and the silo bottom plate. However, the support and the movement of the silo bottom plate should be uniform.

Retaining wall drainage with geocomposites

Behind the retaining walls we need drainage and filter layers to carry the water to the drainage holes or to the drainage pipes at the bottom.

In traditional methods we generally use gravel or sand as drainage layers.

Especially in residential areas the leakage water coming out off the holes of retaining wall doesn't wanted. It is not very good to see some muddy water and the stains of water.

Geocomposite drains are used behind the retaining walls to carry the water from the soil to the drainage pipe.

Geocomposite drainage products replaces the drainage and filter layers. So, it is better to transport to construction site a lightweight material and install it.

Geosynthetic drainage sheets should be manufactured by good quality filters to prevent clogging and also there should be a three dimensional drainage layer between the filters.

Basement, cellar drainage, waterproofing

In the basements of buildings generally we have moisture problems. Even we have waterproofing water may enter the building. A good waterproofing system should be supported by drainage materials.
Geocomposites can intercept incoming water and drain it away from the structure towards the collector pipe.
To use a geocomposite drain is much easier and generally cheaper than conventional drainage systems like mineral drains. Forexample you should carry a lot of gravel to the construction site or building. It is also difficult to use heavy gravel. It is also necessary to cover the drainage pipe with a nonwoven geotextile to prevent clogging.
But a composite drainage sheet with a filter bothsides and only about less than half a kilograms per square meter you can make a better drainage system. Also the inside core of the drainage sheet should be elastic and the core should have a structure to let water go easily to all directions.

A good composite drainage system:
  • Keeps wet soil away from walls
  • collects and removes groundwater
  • Protects the waterproofing on walls
  • Relieves hydrostatic pressure

Advantages of composite drains:
  • Ventilates - Prevents wall sweating and fungal growth
  • Light and flexible-Readily adaptable to irregular wall configurations
  • Economical - No extra accessories needed (i.a. strips, special fastenings, etc.)
  • Reliable and durable
The composite drains can be used as do it yourself type of applications also.

Drainage in Tunnels with geocomposites

Bored Tunnels

The world's biggest tunnel projects are being executed in mountainous regions by means of Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM). Providing adequate drainage is an essential factor in making these tunnels a safe and extending their service life. With bored tunnels, especially with the New Austrian method, geosynthetic drainage and protection layers are a permanent feature. They are applied directly to the unfinished spray concrete coating of the rock face to drain off water and provide protection to the tunnel liners.One product requirement in this particular application is that it must be capable of following the irregularities of the tunnel walls.Geocomposites Enkamat and Enkadrain are used as drainage and protection layers in tunneling,
Cut and Cover Tunnels
With cut and cover tunnels, as with other structures, a long and safe service life is a high priority and is influenced by the design of the drainage system. The installation of geocomposites at tunnel projects is a proven method to drain off water safely and protect the tunnel sealing system. For the use in tunnelling, the Enkadrain product range offers a number of proven and tested drainage mats. Enkadrain can be installed quickly and easily over large areas and be adapted to the most complex geometries. For many years now, different types of Enkadrain have been proving their capabilities in terms of runoff capacity, compression resistance and protection in tunnels and galleries all over the world.

Soil consolidation

Civil Engineers, planners and contractors aim for direct economic highways, airports and other traffic routes using natural resources as efficiently as possible in their construction: this often means having to build on poor soils and sometimes even to reclaim land. In many cases, the sub-grade is too weak to allow construction to proceed at a normal rate. Soft, cohesive soils are very slow to consolidate. 90% settlement often takes 20-25 years without the use of Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD's).
Prefabricated vertical drain (PVD), provides an economical solution to this issue. The principle feature of prefabricated vertical drain (Colbonddrain) lies in providing much shorter and highly permeable drainage paths for the dissipation of excess porewater pressure, allowing 90% consolidation in a time period of months, rather than years.

Geocomposites - Drainage of roof gardens

For many years now, green roofs are well accepted as a visually attractive and cost-effective method of roof construction, and are becoming increasingly used on account of their advantages in terms of aesthetics, ecology and physical characteristics. Due to their added value related to energy efficiency, the improvement of the microclimate and cutting the peaks of rainstorm runoffs, many city authorities and councils are more and more promoting the use of green roofs. Green roofs can give architects and building engineers more scope for aesthetic design and environmental improvement by reducing the number of hard surfaces in built–up areas.
Green roofs retain anything up to 50% of precipitation, spreading the runoff over much longer periods of time. As a result, green roofs can reduce the need for expensive drainage extension works, this helps to the civil engineer cut back construction costs significantly.
Roof Garden of Grand Azur Hotel with Enkadrain, a multifunctional layer for the drainage of surplus water, protection and filtration without the risk of clogging. The nonwoven filter layer serves both to protect the sealing layer and as a separator from the substrate. The choice of the right Enkadrain product type depends on the specific roof structure and use. The Enkadrain product range covers a large number of different drainage mats, each designed for a specific purpose. Certain types of Enkadrain are designed for use in extensive or intensive green roofs; others offer effective solutions for construction projects where roof gardens are intended to take vehicular traffic or other heavy loads, making compression resistance essential.
Enkadrain could be used also to drain long planters
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