Design of green roofs (inverted roof)

Another typical cross section of a green roof design.
  • Vegetation
  • Substrate
  • Drainage-, filter- and protection- layer Enkadrain
  • Roof sealing layer
  • Separating fleece
  • Heat insulation
  • Vapour barrier
  • House top / fabric

Erosion control- River banks

On the river banks prefilled erosion control mats could be used. The mats may be filled with bitumen bound stone chippings, gravel or etc,.
  • prefilled mats
  • Selecting wider witdhs may be better (5 m wide) (depends on the project)
  • vegetation can grow through
  • permanent protection

Some geogrid types

There are a lot of type of geogrids in the market. Depending on the production types, raw materials they may be defined in several categories.
  • Laser welded and polyester/polypropylene bars
  • Punched holes in a sheet followed by drawing or stretching (HDPE or PP)
  • Polyster woven geogrids with a PVC coating
Added a few photos here showing some of the geogrid types.

Traditional drainage layers

To compare with the geocomposite drainage products let's remember the traditional drainage layers :)

Traditional drainage layers are made of graded granular material

  • the granular filter prevents penetration of fines into the drain (Filtration)
  • the granular core transports the water in the plain of the filter (Drainage)

How geogrid works

Below a video simply shows how geogrid works.

Ofcourse there are a lot of things to do for design and applications but this video simply explains the supporting power of geogrids.

Take a box and fill it with gravel.
Somebody step on gravel.
The gravel does not hold the person up.
Then reinforce the gravel with geogrid layers.
Next when you remove the box, you can see that system is supported by the geogrid layers.

Soil reinforcement:Materials and design questions

- Possible materials for soil reinforcement
Most used:


- Main design questions:
  • What are the soil-reinforcement interaction parameters ?
  • What is the long term design strength (TLTDS)of the reinforcement ?
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